Greek code for Seismic Resistant Structures – EAK2000, with Amendments (in Greek). Therefore, the authors propose a full assessment, validation, optimization and complementation of the existing knowledge, by means of the current state-of-the-art for calculating, testing and modeling. But on a positive note, school buildings in rubble stone masonry are currently not completely ruled out in Nepal. (2019a). Novikova, A., Szalay, Z., Simaku, G., Thimjo, T., Salamon, B., and Plaku, T. (2015). UNECE (2017). Earthquake Resistant Construction. The following specific type of stone masonry and building typologies are under consideration, based on the stone masonry projects as designed and built in Nepal by SSF, and explained in detail in the first paper in this series: – Type of stone unit: The focus is on random rubble stone (Figure 1A), meaning stones that are uncut, unsquared, irregularly shaped and non-dimensioned. K. Vardanyan (Armenia), Prof. A. Alifov (Azerbaijan), Assist. Code of Practice for Construction of Stone Masonry, Part 1 Rubble Stone Masonry. 1) Rubble masonry: In this category, the stones used are either undressed or roughly dressed having wider joints. Mortar shall not be leaner than 1:6 cement-sand ratio with a minimum compression strength of 3.0 N/mm2 at 28 days, according to the (unrevised) code NBC 109:1994 (2007) “Masonry Unreinforced.”. The Egyptian building code solely describes the use of dimensioned brick and block-shaped stones (ECP-204, 2005). Countries that have adopted Eurocode are, however, allowed to deviate from the regulations through their National Annexes. Seismic Code of Costa Rica, Revision 2014 (in Spanish). West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. All mountain ranges of the Caucasus are shown in Figure 3. Ordinance on Temporary Technical Regulations for Construction in Seismic Regions (in Serbo-Croatian). Due to the predominant use of Unreinforced Masonry (URM) construction at that time, the first Iranian seismic code PBO-64 (1964) covered only “non-engineered” buildings such as loadbearing masonry with additional horizontal tie-beams. As a result for housing designs, seismic specifications only need to be applied in category C (zone III) such as: Maximum building height is 2 stories plus attic, maximum free wall span 5.0 m, maximum floor-to-floor height 3.0 m and minimum wall thickness 0.35 m. The minimum dimensions for masonry in corners (230 mm), piers (450 mm) and maximum percentage of openings (46% in ground floor and 37% in first story) are more generous than in Nepal, due to the restricted application in zone III only. It is noteworthy that the earliest codes of the 1950s and 1960s had included a quite elaborate chapter about rural construction with earthen materials, which is still present in most recently updated seismic code SP 14.13330.2018 (2018). The masonry chapter in the first Turkmen seismic code SNT 2.01.08-99 (2000) is nearly identical to the Russian code of 1981, which does not cover rubble stone. Kathmandu: Department of Urban Development and Building Construction. In the first edition of IS:1893-1962 (1962) the country was divided into 7 seismic zones (0–VI), which was brought to 5 zones (I–V) after the Konya earthquake in 1967 (IS:1893-1970, 1970). All walls thicker than 19 cm must be strengthened with horizontal tie-beams and vertical tie-columns, and floors must be rigid concrete slabs (or of equivalent stiffness). The paper ends with an appeal to experts, academics and final-year students worldwide, to exchange their knowledge and to support the project with their time and expertise. In that respect, the recommendations must be subject to continuous review and change as more data become available” (Arya, 1977). Rubble stone masonry remains to be a primary construction method in this region and the review of the Himalayas includes Nepal, India, Pakistan and China. In Tajikistan the technique is not ruled out as it is only “recommended” to use cut stones, and is therefore added to the list; also because this is in line with the current needs and practices in the country. Dhaka: Housing and Building Research Institute. Turkey has a long and rich history of construction using stone masonry, such as fully loadbearing walls with wood-lacing, or a system of braced wooden frames with stone-infill called “hımış.” The country is frequently subjected to destructive earthquakes. Paris: GADRRRES. This was further merged to the current division of 4 zones (II–V) since IS:1893 (part 1)-2002 (2002), meaning that today all of India is subjected to seismic hazard. TBDY (2018). The review aims to trace when and where certain rules came into existence, how they have changed over time, and if there are similarities between codes and countries. N. Aloko (Afghanistan), Dr. G. Ho, MEng. Eurocode 6 – Design of Masonry Structures - Part 1-1: General Rules for Reinforced and Unreinforced Masonry Structures. Wuhan: China Institute of Building Standard Design & Research. Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of Buildings – Code of Practice (Second Revision). Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures (Second Revision). Zones IV and V cover most of the Himalayan range such as the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Ladakh and Jammu, and Kashmir, as well as the Kutch Region in Gujarat in the west; in all these regions stone masonry is still practiced today. National Building Code of India 2016, Vol. - Machine crushed rubble is also available having size of 0 to 150 mm or as per client requirement. Tashkent: Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Architecture and Construction. Overall, it is observed that the allowed dimensions of building volumes and their individual elements vary greatly between the countries. “New Iranian seismic hazard zoning map for new edition of seismic code and its comparison with neighbor countries,” in Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, (Lisboa: Curran Associates, Inc). BCP-SP-07 (2007). SFRY-52/90 (1990). Arya, A. S. (2000). Code for the Seismic Design of Civil and Industrial Buildings (in Chinese). This can easily be improved by adding a line in the codes, which specifically states whether the technique is allowed or not. Ankara: Yeni Cezaevi Printing House. To understand the role of stone masonry in all (former) Russian territories, one needs to go back to the definitions in the earliest codes of the 1950s. Ankara: TÜBITAK jointly with NSF. After the 1954 Chlef earthquake, a provisional set of recommendations was published (AS55, 1955) which described the use of Confined Masonry for seismic areas, but without materialization of the masonry units. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. On Earthquake Resistant Regulation of Construction Works (in Greek). Arya, A. S. (1977). Hicyilmaz, K. (2011). GED4ALL-Global Exposure Database for Multi-Hazard Risk Analysis–Multi-Hazard Exposure Taxonomy. Norms and Rules of Construction in Seismic Regions (in Russian). “Portuguese studies on earthquake resistant structures,” in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, (Tokyo: Gakujutsu Bunken Fukuy-Rai). IS 1893 (part 1)-2002 (2002). New Delhi: Indian Standards Institution. On top of that, it is emphasized that rubble stone, among other materials like pumice and adobe, “shall not be used as bearing wall material.” This is unfortunate, as reconnaissance reports show that rural one-story stone houses with traditional nominal reinforcements and light roofs behaved well under seismic motion, such as during the 2003 Bingöl (Ozcebe et al., 2003) and 2011 Van-Erciş earthquakes (Aydan et al., 2012). RDD Construction Of R C C Culvert 3 X 4 50 M X 3 05 M And Guard Wall On Fuljhar Nala Near Village Sake Under Panchayat Aloudi Sen , Due Date: 07-01-2021 ,Tender Value: 0 ,City : Senha block, district Lohardaga., Location: Jharkhand Tender Notice 26464321 As these standards are exclusively for dimensioned stone, the Afghan code completely rules out the use of rubble stone for building purposes, which does not serve the current (non-engineered) construction needs and practices in the country. Kabul: Government of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. The technique is still explained in the masonry code RABC IV-13.01-96 (1996), in which also standardized sizes and wall thickness between 19 and 39 cm are mentioned for fully dressed stones, as mainly used today. However, it must be noted that all schools are designed and constructed by the “Organization of Renovation, Development, and Equipping of Schools” under the Ministry of Education, who is in a position to deviate from the codes, and may apply different (possibly stricter) regulations for the urban or rural settings. Thinley, K., Hao, H., and Tashi, C. (2017). The appendix with building classifications defines type 1b as “houses with walls made of earthen bricks or rubble stone, with a light wooden roof,” although no further details or dimensions are given. New Delhi: Bureau of Indian Standards. BD-19/02 (1959). In their latest code RPS-2000 (2011) rubble stone masonry with cement mortar is allowed in three techniques (URM, CM, RM), all with a maximum of 2 stories regardless of the seismic zoning. When following their annex to Eurocode 8 (nHRN EN 1998-1:2011/NA, 2011) for URM with required nominal reinforcements, then “simple masonry buildings” in importance class II (houses) are allowed without mandatory verification, as follows: Maximum height depending on the acceleration at site (2 stories for ag = 0.30g or 5 stories for ag ≤ 0.20g, both on rock soil) and a minimum given percentual area of shear walls. The following paragraphs describe the historic application of stone masonry in the seismically active Eastern and Southern regions of Europe (Figure 4) and examines if countries currently allow rubble stone as a masonry material. Quetta: Quetta Development Authority. Large stones are laid first and the spaces between are followed with smaller broken stones. Traditionally, adobe and earthen structures were most common, with some sporadic examples of stone masonry in the Köpet Dag Mountains. Although restricted to areas with a low seismic hazard, with these clauses the Italian national codes deviate from Eurocode. Firstly, it is seldom clearly described what type of masonry construction is addressed. In coarsed random rubble masonry, the masonry work is carried out in courses such that the stones in a particular course are … Afghanistan Building Code 2012, Afghan Structural Code (ASC). San Jose: College Federation of Engineers and Architects of Costa Rica. Regulation for Structures in Disaster Areas. Seismic Design Codes (in Russian). Since the very first 1962 edition it is stated that “in highly seismic areas, construction of a type which entails heavy debris and consequent loss of life and property, such as masonry—particularly mud masonry and rubble masonry, is best avoided.” For construction features and material specifications the seismic code refers from its earliest editions to IS:4326-1967 (1968) “Earthquake-Resistant Design and Construction of Buildings,” IS:1905-1961 (1962) “Masonry Walls” and to IS:1597(part 1)-1967 (1967) “Construction of Rubble Stone Masonry.” After the 1988 Bihar earthquake in Nepal near the Indian border, more attention was needed for low-strength brickwork and stone masonry. Seismic Design Codes (in Kyrgyz and Russian). Jade, S., Shrungeshwara, T., Kumar, K., Choudhury, P., Dumka, R., and Bhu, H. (2017). Eurocode 6 – Design of Masonry Structures - Part 1-1: General Rules for Reinforced and Unreinforced Masonry Structures – National Annex (in Croatian). J. Bothara (Nepal), Prof. Y. Singh and Assist. 4, 60–64. For the same reason, all South and Central American countries that have significant seismic hazard are excluded as well. Central Asia consists of five states known as “the Stans” which are Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan, of which the main mountain ranges are shown in Figure 2. First the hall is cleaned by injecting water into the hall. GB 50099-2011 (2010). ASTM C616/C616M (2015). GB 50011-2010 (2016). Sofia: Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works. – Type of buildings: Single-family houses and small school buildings. Kathmandu: Department of Urban Development and Building Construction. Croatia deserves a separate section, being the only country in this region that has conducted research on the mechanical properties of stone masonry, as mentioned in the Yugoslavian code. – Type of masonry: Masonry is generally divided into 3 main types, being Unreinforced Masonry (URM), Confined Masonry (CM) and Reinforced Masonry (RM), as described by Silva et al. Even better would have been the inclusion of IS.13828 for low-strength masonry, as stone is still widely used in the northern parts of the country, especially in Gilgit-Baltistan province. Bradstone Masonry block OHS61759 FM96927 EMS96928 A simple and ingenious method of reproducing the appearance of traditional random rubble walling. Iranian Code of Practice for Seismic Resistant Design of Buildings, 1st Edn. 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